Brighton Implant Clinic is very pleased to announce the opening of a new laboratory in Worthing’s Guildborne Centre! Having the laboratory in the same building as the dentistry practice allows for faster treatment completion time. You won’t have to wait for it to be shipped and received from an outside location, ultimately cutting down on how long your treatment will take and your acquiring a new, bright smile.

Having a dental laboratory on site enables us to make dental restorations in less time. Unlike other practices we are able to priorities cases which need to be completed in one day. This is crucial for patients who travel from far away and need to have complex dental treatment. Our technicians are experienced in both implant restorations as well as conventional crowns and bridges.

The new laboratory has four skilled dental lab assistants qualified of making same-day crowns and bridges.


Clinical Director for the Brighton Implant Clinic, Dr. Bruno Silva, said the launch of the laboratory in Worthing is a great step towards achieving affordable dental care for Britons.

“Our patients travel from all over the UK to visit our clinics and gain access to more affordable and predictable implant treatments. The new lab in Worthing extends the offering we are providing, and creates more opportunities for people who require our services,” Dr. Silva said. Brighton Implant Clinic already started its first dental laboratory in Hove in 2009 and currently provides in house dental prosthesis for all of the clinics within the group.



Brighton Dental Lab can carry out small porcelain fractures on screw retained crowns and bridges. Our recent purchase of a porcelain repair kit from Ivoclar enables us to bond composite to fractured porcelain. The technique is best suited for use outside of the mouth. Ideal bonding conditions require a dry field, hence the repairs are recommended to be completed within the dental laboratory. Repairs usually take 2-3 hours to complete. For more information contact Petr Mysicka at our lab.




Our team at Brighton Dental Lab are regularly complete crown and bridge work made of zirconia. Unlike conventional crowns and bridges made of porcelain fused to metal, zirconia contains no dark metals. This helps create restorations that are natural looking and reflect light similarly to natural tooth enamel. Our lab has facilities to both scan and mill all types of cad cam materials including zirconia, acrylic, titanium, non precious metal and wax. For more details about zirconia crowns and bridges please contact our lab.



Laboratory work completed by our experienced dental technicians and lab assistants, Petr Mysicka and Krzysztof Lewandowski.



Trench mouth is a type of gingivitis (infection of the gums), which is characterized by severe pain, bleeding of the gums, infection, and ulcers. This condition is not usually seen in our part of the world but is common in the developing nations because of poverty, malnutrition and unhygienic practices.

Trench mouth was so named because it was very common in soldiers during World War I when they lived in trenches for long duration’s and were not able to maintain dental hygiene. The other name of Trench mouth is necrotizing ulcerative gingivitis.

Although the condition is not contagious but the symptoms become progressively severe and the dentist should be consulted as soon as possible. All types of gum infections are serious, painful and destructive conditions that may cause damage to bony tissues and loss of teeth if not treated. Therefore, early treatment can prevent the progression of the disease and loss of teeth.


Symptoms and Signs

  • Extremely painful gums.
  • Gums are swollen and red.
  • Gums bleed even with little pressure.
  • Difficulty and pain while chewing or swallowing.
  • Ulcers on the gums and between the teeth.
  • Presence of a gray layer on the gums.
  • Foul smelling breath and bad taste in the mouth.
  • Fever and listlessness.
  • Lymph nodes in the neck and jaw areas are swollen.


Causes of Trench Mouth

Normally, the mouth harbors many types of microorganisms including bacteria, viruses and fungi. Under normal circumstances, these microorganisms remain in control and do not produce any disease. When the immune system weakens, these bacteria increase their population and cause infection and disease. If the infection involves the gums, the condition of trench mouth can occur that destroys the gums. The gums are very painful with bleeding ulcers.  The exact mechanism of destruction of gums and other tissues is not known but it is believed that the toxins and enzymes produced by the bacteria are responsible for this.

Some factors that can increase the risk of trench mouth are listed below:

  • Lack of oral hygiene: If regular and proper cleaning of the teeth isn’t done, plaque starts building up rapidly.
  • Malnourishment and malnutrition: If the diet is poor and lacks necessary nutrients and vitamins, the ability of the body to fight infection and disease is greatly reduced.
  • Infection of the teeth, mouth or throat: An untreated infection in areas around the gums may develop into trench mouth.
  • Use of tobacco: The habit of chewing tobacco or smoking can damage the blood vessels of the gums and cause trench mouth.
  • Weak immune system: A person may experience this condition when the immune system is weak due to a chronic disease or because of some medications.
  • Stress: Continued and prolonged emotional stress is also a risk factor.



The Tooth is Killed by the Root Canal Treatment

False: The basic purpose of a root canal treatment is to clean and remove the infected material from the inner part of the tooth in order to avoid tooth loss. The inner chamber or pulp of the tooth contains the nerves and blood vessels, which helps in the development. As the person ages, the nerves act as a warning sign for anything wrong with the tooth. Pain is felt whenever there is damage, infection, fracture, or trauma of the tooth.

Strong Painkillers are needed after a Root Canal Treatment

Somewhat True: When root canal treatment is performed, pain is experienced for a few days and it gradually gets better. As the pain is mainly due to inflammation, the use of anti-inflammatory pain relievers like Ibuprofen, Acetaminophen, or other such drugs is recommended.

If severe pain persists even after a few weeks, the dentist should be consulted to look for any complications.

A Crown is usually needed after the Root Canal Treatment

True: The teeth that need a root canal treatment usually have large cavities, which are filled with a post and filling material. This is done to provide strength to the tooth, as it is more prone to a fracture. Placement of a crown on the top is highly advisable and gives further strength to the tooth. It also does not allow the filling to escape from the tooth cavity.


The Process of Root Canal Treatment requires Multiple Visits

False: Usually, the treatment does not require multiple visits and the process is completed in a single visit within a couple of hours. However, the number of visits may increase with complications. In case of severe infection, the dentist eradicates the infection first by using specific drugs and postpones the root canal procedure for a few days until the infection is cleared. The number of visits can also increase if the tooth has more than one canal.

If Root Canal Treatment fails, it always results in Tooth Extraction

False: Root canal treatment is successful in most cases and about 85% of teeth are completely healed. In some cases, there may be pain or infection in the tooth after many years. The process consists of cleaning and disinfecting the root canal again, which is followed by filling and recapping the tooth with a crown.

In certain conditions, the tip of the root is micro-surgically excised (apectomy) as part of the treatment.



Root Canal Treatment is Painful

False: A root canal treatment is not painful. On the contrary, it is used for relieving the pain due to irritation of the nerves in the dental pulp chamber, and the pain due to infection of the teeth. In the past it used to be painful but now with the newer anesthetic drugs, the procedure has become easy and pain-free.

Anaesthesia is not very effective when there is severe infection of the teeth, in such cases root canal treatment is postponed and antibiotics are prescribed. The procedure is performed when the infection subsides. Sometimes the dentist refers complicated cases to an endodontist, who is a root canal treatment specialist.

 Root Canal Treatment is a Costly Procedure

True: The treatment could be a costly bargain but it is a must-done procedure to prevent tooth loss. The saved tooth can perform the normal functions of chewing or grinding the food.  It is also worthwhile to note that root canal treatment is less expensive than the extraction of tooth followed by a dental bridge or a dental implant.


Root Canal Treatment Relieves Pain Immediately

False: After the procedure of root canal treatment, there is considerable reduction in pain and discomfort. To control and relieve the pain and sensitivity, pain-relieving medications are advised for a few days until the pain reduces. Mild pain continues for a few weeks, especially during the process of chewing. This pain gradually disappears completely.

Root Canal Treatment is not effective

False: Root canal treatment when performed properly with filling or crown placement has a very high rate of success. The treated tooth can last a lifetime in a large number of cases. Some treated teeth may get infected after a long time. These may undergo retreatment. When there is a fracture in the dental root and there is a lot of damage and destruction of bone in the deeper structures, extraction of the tooth is the only option.

Sensitivity and some Pain after Root Canal Treatment is Normal

False: It is not normal to have continuous and constant pain a few weeks after the root canal treatment. The pain could be due to infected canals, which were not cleaned prior to the procedure or because of a fracture and fragmentation of the dental root.

When there is persistent discomfort and pain, the case may be referred to a root canal treatment specialist (an endodontist) who can provide further treatment. But, teeth with fractured root cannot be saved and require extraction.



Air abrasion is a drill-less dental approach that is used for the removal of tooth decay as well as for other purposes.

During the process, an instrument is used for spraying away dental decay. Typically, a stream of particles is focused on the decayed part of the teeth, which are composed of silica, baking soda as well as aluminum oxide. These particles are propelled toward the surface of teeth with the help of compressed air running through a special handpiece. Small decay particles on tooth surfaces are eliminated as the particles strike these surfaces. Eventually, decay particles are “suctioned” away by means of a special tube.

Air Abrasion and Safety Concerns

There is no doubt in the fact that air abrasion is a safe procedure. However, it is important to use proper eyewear for preventing any form of eye irritation that results from the spray. Using rubber dams is also needed for protecting mouth regions that don’t get proper treatment. Particle suctioning further prevents these particles from entering the lungs through breathing.


How Beneficial is Air Abrasion?

In comparison with the conventional drilling approach, this new method is beneficial in several ways. The procedure doesn’t generate any heat, pressure as well as sound. Furthermore, this process doesn’t depend on anesthesia, mostly when dental cavities are shallow. In addition to leaving a greater part of the healthy tissue behind, this procedure causes the working region to be fairly dry, which is a benefit while placing composite fillings. Air abrasion deceases the chances of tooth fracturing as well as tooth chipping, which is considered highly beneficial for dental fillings by some dental experts. Air abrasion helps ensure treatment in different parts of the mouth in a single dental visit. And another major benefit of the procedure is that it is simpler and quicker than the traditional drilling methods.

Are There Any Side Effects?

Just like many other procedures, air abrasion also has certain limitations. The process can be painful and the abrasive particles may cause the teeth to become sensitive. This procedure isn’t the most ideal treatment approach for deep tooth cavities. In fact, air abrasion is considered ideal for the removal of small cavities. Another limitation associated with air abrasion is that only composite fillings complement this procedure as these materials adhere properly to the smooth surfaces resulting from air abrasion.

It should be noted that this procedure is safe for use in young patients as well as patients with dental anxiety.

Air Abrasion and Complementary Procedures

This procedure can be performed together with other dental procedures. If the dentist wants to remove specific composite restorations from the existing ones, he/she may opt for air abrasion. Similarly, air abrasion can be used to complement a dental process that aims at preparing the teeth for bonding or dental sealants. Air abrasion is also used for eliminating stains as well as discoloration on the teeth.



The “Recovery” Phase

Patients are generally expected to leave for home after the completion of this surgical procedure. But, if a sedative is used for promoting relaxation, the patient may consider making arrangements in advance so that somebody else can drive him/her home.

Typically, the dentist provides the patient with guidelines or instructions on postoperative care. These guidelines are usually based on the patient’s dietary needs, physical-activity considerations as well as the use of medications.  Furthermore, the patient is asked to avoid brushing or flossing the gum line until the healing phase ends. The patient is advised to use a special rinse for rinsing the mouth so that plaque buildup can be controlled during the phase of healing, and he/she may be given an antibiotic for reducing the chances of developing infectious diseases.

After a week or more of the grafting procedure, the patient may start eating soft or cool foods like pasta, eggs, yogurt, cheese as well as ice cream. The intensity of pain following the surgical procedure is based on the kind of gum graft done. If the procedure doesn’t involve removal of tissue from the palate, there shouldn’t be a lot of discomfort following the procedure. But, if the procedure involves tissue removal from the palate, the patient may experience discomfort for a couple of days after the surgery. The wound on the mouth’s roof is generally characterized by burning sensations. But on the brighter side, the healing process is quick. Usually, the dentist prescribes over-the-counter drugs or pain medication to offer relief from post-operative pain. Although it may take some weeks for the mouth to be healed completely, the patient can resume day-to-day activities following the surgical procedure.

If any unusual signs are observed after the surgical procedure, the dentist should be consulted immediately. If bleeding doesn’t stop following the application of pressure for 20 minutes, the dentist should be consulted as soon as possible. Similarly, if unusual pain or inflammation is observed following post-operative care, the dentist should be reported.

The cost of this surgical procedure typically depends on the amount of work done during the procedure. The patient should discuss his/her cost concerns with the dentist to learn more about the different payment options available.


Need of Another Gum Surgery

Although gum tissue grafts typically produce effective results in terms of gum recession repair and damage prevention, it isn’t guaranteed that gum problems will not be experienced again.  It should be noted that regular dental examinations and proper oral hygiene practices could help prevent further damage that may require surgery. Gum disease can also be prevented by brushing the teeth two times everyday and using a fluoride-based toothpaste. The teeth should be flossed on a regular basis and a healthy diet should be consumed. Furthermore, smoking should be avoided. Visiting the dentist for routine checkups and getting professional dental cleanings is very important to avoid the need of another gum tissue graft.


Understanding Gum Tissue Graft

Most patients become extremely worried when informed by their dentist or oral surgeon that they need a gum surgery. However, it is important to understand that the surgical procedure isn’t as horrible as it sounds.  A gum tissue graft becomes essential when the teeth require protection from the detrimental influence of gum recession, or when the smile needs an esthetic improvement.

When an individual experiences gum recession, the tissue surrounding his/her teeth start pulling away from the affected tooth, which causes a greater part of the tooth to be exposed. This causes the supporting bone to become damaged. This gum problem isn’t very uncommon, particularly in adults.

Often, the problem doesn’t become evident until it reaches its final stages. But, the biggest indicator of this gum condition is appearance of an ugly, exposed tooth root, which becomes highly sensitive to cold/hot foods. The problem can even lead to tooth loss, if treatment isn’t ensured at early stages. For repairing the damage as well as preventing additional dental issues, a gum tissue surgery is required.


What is the Procedure?

Generally, there are three different types of procedures. The specific kind of procedure that the dentist suggests is based on the needs of each patient.

What are Connective-Tissue Grafts?

These grafts are most commonly used for treating root exposure. While performing these procedures, flaps of skin are cut at the mouth’s roof while tissues beneath these flaps are removed. These are later stitched to the gum tissues that surround the patient’s exposed root. Once the connective tissue gets removed, the surgeon stitches back the flap.

What Are Gingival Grafts?

These grafts typically involve using tissue from the mouth’s roof. However, this procedure doesn’t involve flap preparation or removal of tissue. On the contrary, free gingival grafts involve direct removal of a certain amount of tissue from the mouth’s roof, which is eventually connected to the gum region that is under treatment. This procedure is most commonly suggested for individuals with thin gums and who need more tissue for enlarging their gums.

What Are Pedicle Grafts?

In such grafts, tissue isn’t grafted from the palate but it is taken from gum surrounding the tooth that requires repair. A certain portion of the flap, also known as the pedicle, is cut away so that an edge of the flap or pedicle stays connected. For the purpose of covering the exposed root and sewing it into place, the gum is pulled over. However, it should be noted that this graft is only recommended for individuals with plenty of gum tissue surrounding the affected tooth.

Certain dental professionals and patients consider using graft material obtained from a tissue bank in place of tissue removed from the mouth’s roof. In some cases, tissue-stimulating proteins are employed for the procedure to promote natural bone and tissue growth. The dentist or oral surgeon can determine the most ideal procedure for each patient.



Boasting a beautiful, healthy smile is what everyone dreams about. But, a very few people succeed in fulfilling this wish.  With the introduction of advanced orthodontic devices like aligners, many people can now bring their dream of “boasting a great smile” to reality.

Basically, braces have wire-connected brackets for encouraging teeth movement. Dental aligners are custom-made retainers that tend to slip over the wearer’s teeth. Now, it is important to understand that every person isn’t an eligible candidate for clear aligners. And the best person to consult for determining a patient’s eligibility for this treatment is his/her dentist. Moreover, the dentist should be asked about his/her experience in treating patients with aligners.


Can anyone get invisible teeth aligners?

Since invisible aligners are typically custom-built for a fixed fit, these serve as an ideal option for teens and adults. In most cases, straightening the teeth of a child is complicated because young patients are in a developing phase and the dentist can’t ignore the fact that the mouth of the patient is also developing.

Clear aligners work best for people with teeth that are moderately crowded or have certain spacing problems. In more serious vases of spacing and crowding, more advanced orthodontics may be needed.

Aligner Mechanism

After devising the treatment for correcting the bite, the dentist comes up with the right strategy for tooth movement. If the patient gets the clear aligners, he/she will be fitted for different versions that make small changes for tooth movement over the period of treatment.

These aligners are created by clear plastic materials and fitted over the teeth tightly, however, they can be taken out for flossing, brushing as well as eating. New aligners are given to the patient in some weeks to ensure proper teeth movement.


Teeth Straightening And Aligners

The overall time needed for the treatment to be successful depends on the number of teeth that require movement or rotation.  The more an individual’s bite is abnormal or the more his/her teeth are crooked, the longer it takes for the treatment to be effective. Treatment typically takes around a year or two to be effective.  However, if an adult has had braces in his/her childhood, and the teeth had slight shifts over the years, invisible teeth aligners may be required for a period of 10 weeks at minimum.

Since invisible aligners aren’t as precise as traditional ones, a “refinement” of teeth with the help of braces may be needed to make the treatment more effective.

Preventing “metal mouth” is the sole reason behind choosing clear aligners. Unlike braces, aligners can be removed, which makes it easier to floss as well as brush properly, thereby helping in maintaining better overall health. It should also be noted that fixing misaligned or crooked teeth is not only about boasting a perfect smile but it is also very useful in protecting the patient’s long-term dental health.



Many patients often consult their dentists or dental technicians to determine the most ideal type of dental floss. But experienced dental professionals always suggest that an individual should opt for the type that he/she can manage to use on a regular basis because regular flossing is more important than determining the right type of floss.

Basically, the idea behind flossing is using a piece of dental floss that is run between the teeth for cleaning purposes. Dental flossing plays an important role in cleaning away plaque that is missed by the toothbrush while maintaining healthy oral environment. In fact, if the teeth are solely brushed and not flossed, a bigger fraction of bacteria in the mouth will be left behind.


Today, there are a number of different types of floss that an individual can choose from. Now, it is important to understand that going for two different kinds of floss won’t produce different results. But, two different types may have differences in terms of factors like comfort or taste. While all types of dental floss are effective in cleaning the teeth, the right choice is the one that can be easily used on a daily basis.

The two basic types of dental floss are multifilament floss that are made of nylon or silk and monofilament floss that are made of plastic or rubber. Of the two types, nylon dental floss is extremely popular because it is the standard dental floss and when a generic dental floss is purchased, it is most likely nylon-based. In fact, nylon dental floss is even less expensive as compared to other types. Coming in different flavors and thicknesses, nylon dental floss has both waxed and un-waxed varieties. On the contrary, the monofilament floss integrates advanced technology, and because this floss doesn’t work like a fabric such as nylon, it is less likely to tear or rip easily. Because of its strength, many find this floss easier to use.


The two forms of floss come in a variety of flavors such as mint, bubblegum and cinnamon. Furthermore, the two kinds of floss boast a variety of thicknesses. This is essential as different people have different spacing between their teeth. And the ideal strategy is using a dental floss that is highly comfortable. If the dental floss goes between the teeth easily, it should be considered to have the ideal thickness.

Another category is opting for waxed and un-waxed dental floss. These are typically made of nylon. And wax is highly useful in helping the floss squeeze between the teeth comfortably. However, there are no clinical benefits to using waxed floss and it’s all about personal preference. Lastly, it is important to understand that waxed and un-waxed floss come in different thicknesses, therefore, there are several options to choose from.


Often, children experience oral and dental problems like misaligned jaws or crooked teeth, which usually require orthodontic treatment. This treatment involves the use of a variety of orthodontic appliances like wires, brackets, headgear, retainers and bands. Here’s an insight into some of the most common kinds of orthodontic treatment options.


Dental Braces

Braces come in different varieties, as they are the most popular dental appliances that help straighten the teeth while fixing misaligned bites. These dental appliances work by the application of pressure to the teeth as well as jaws for moving the teeth into a favorable position.

Traditionally, teeth were banded completely. However, now brackets are directly bonded to every tooth surface. In certain cases, brackets are positioned behind the teeth, which makes them less visible.

Dental braces are typically composed of steel, plastic, ceramic or a combination of different metals. Sometimes, braces are prepared in a way that they have tooth-colored appearance. When needed, the wires of the braces can be prepared from materials like copper-titanium or nickel-titanium. The materials have a longer life and need fewer adjustments as compared to steel wires. In fact, invisible “trays” are also available that can help in straightening the teeth with the help of conventional wires and braces.

Invisible trays are ideal for individuals who are in need of simple orthodontic treatment. This strategy employs clear, custom-made trays that apply tooth pressure, which moves the teeth slowly into their proper position. This treatment isn’t helpful for individuals who are in need of more broad orthodontics. It usually costs more than conventional braces.

Here are some other common appliances that are used in orthodontics these days:

Understanding TADs

TADs are simply mini-screws that range from six to twelve millimeters in length. If required, these screws can be fixed to oral bone on a temporary basis for providing a fixed point for the application of force in order to move the teeth. These screws ensure predictable tooth control, which makes them a popular dental appliance in orthodontic treatment.

What Are Rubber Bands?

Rubber bands are known as elastics that are used for moving the teeth and jaws into the favorable position with great force. These bands are available in different colors and wearers have different options to choose from.

What About Headgear?

Certain individuals benefit from the use of headgear. It has attachment to the dental braces from the head’s back, which can be eventually removed. When a headgear is required, it should be worn during sleep or at home.

What Are Retainers?

Retainers are highly effective in keeping the teeth in position after the removal of braces. It takes a great deal of time for the teeth to start settling into their actual position. By wearing dental retainers, shifting of the teeth can be prevented. Certain retainers can be removed but others are permanent. Typically, retainers are composed of clear metallic and plastic wires. In some cases, retainers are also made of rubber.



Yes, dentists can provide treatment for mild orthodontic problems. However, if there is an extensive amount of orthodontic work that needs done, consulting an orthodontist is best, who has invested two-three years in orthodontic training. An orthodontist has specialization in performing procedures to straighten teeth, correct tooth misalignment as well as fix jaw problems.

When Should Children Seek Orthodontic Treatment?

The dentist is the best person to consult in order to get referred for an orthodontist’s evaluation. Ideally, as soon as a child reaches the age of seven, he/she should be evaluated for orthodontics. At this point, the orthodontist will be able to identify subtle issues with jaw development as well as emerging teeth.  According to experienced orthodontists, dental issues need to be corrected while the child is still developing. After the growth stops, orthodontic treatment may take even more time to produce desirable results.


What’s The Right Age of Getting Braces?

Experts believe that there isn’t any particular age to need or get orthodontics. The orthodontic treatment actually depends on the needs of each child. For instances, children having cleft palates get orthodontic appliances before initial tooth eruption.

Some children may find the treatment beneficial if started at the age of 6 or 7, which is even before the loss of baby teeth. The main aim of early orthodontic treatment is prevention of further complications. It tends to develop a better atmosphere for the eruption and growth of permanent teeth. Most children who need early orthodontics require braces later for successfully completing the tooth as well as jaw alignment procedure.

Are Braces Painful?

No, braces aren’t painful. However, children may experience some level of discomfort when these dental appliances are put on for the first time or when they get initially adjusted. If there is mild pain or some discomfort after wearing braces, prescribed medications can be used to get relief. Moreover, irritation arising from the wire or brackets can be relieved by using special orthodontic wax that covers the sharp parts of the braces.

Are Some Children Allergic to Braces?

In very rare cases, patients show allergic reactions to stainless steel. However, if this is the case, other orthodontic appliances may be used. Some children may have allergies associated with the latex gloves used during the orthodontic treatment. Therefore, the dentist or orthodontist should be informed beforehand if a child has latex allergy so that non-latex gloves are used during the treatment.

Diet and Braces

It is important to understand that braces are quite delicate. If a certain portion of this dental appliance is broken, the teeth could be moved in the wrong direction, thereby increasing the duration of the treatment. Things that are chewy or hard should be eaten with care. This includes crunchy nuts, popcorn, sticky candy as well as chewy sweets.

The Length of Treatment

The time that a child may need to wear braces for is based on the specific dental problem, how well the teeth respond to the treatment as well as the child’s growth. In most cases, braces are worn for 1-3 years.



Typically, the mechanism behind braces is the application of continuous pressure over a specified time period for moving the teeth slowly in the desired direction. As the teeth keep moving, bones start shaping naturally. Here is an insight into the different components of dental braces:


The small squares that are directly attached to the tooth’s front by using special bonding agents are referred to as “brackets”. Brackets actually serve as handles to hold the arch wires for promoting teeth movement. There are different kinds of brackets, which include stainless steel as well as tooth-colored plastic varieties.  At times, brackets are attached to the teeth’s back for hiding these dental appliances from view.

Orthodontic Bands

These are steel-based materials that can be transparent or tooth-colored. Typically, bonding agents are used for cementing these bands to the teeth. These bands wrap around the teeth for giving support to the brackets. Although tooth-colored orthodontic bands are known to be esthetically- appealing, they are costlier than their stainless steel counterpart. Every patient isn’t an eligible candidate for using bands, which is why, some patients get brackets without any bands.



These are separators fitting between the teeth for creating a small space before placing orthodontic bands.

Arch Wires

These wires get attached to the brackets while serving as tracks for guiding tooth movement. These may be metal-based or tooth-colored.

Braces Ties

These are tiny rubber rings, used for fastening arch wires to the braces’ brackets. Ties can be colored or metallic.

Buccal Tubes

These tubes are used for securely holding the arch wire’s end in place. Furthermore, small rubber bands, known as ligatures are used for holding the wires to the braces’ brackets.


Springs are typically positioned on the wires between brackets for pushing, pulling, closing or opening the desired spaces.


Headgear Tubes

In some cases, the upper teeth’s bands may require headgear tubes for holding the headgear’s facebow in proper position. Headgears are common tools that orthodontists use for fixing teeth irregularities.

Rubber Bands

These are elastics that are attached to the brackets’ hooks and are worn between the lower along with upper teeth in different ways. These bands are used for the application of pressure for moving the upper teeth against the lower teeth so that a proper fit of the teeth can be achieved.

Facebow Headgear

These are wire gadgets that help in moving the upper molars to correct any bite discrepancies while making room for teeth that are crowded. These gadgets are typically composed of inner metal parts that enter the mouth while bonding to buccal tubes. These wire gadgets also have outer parts that cover the outside of the patient’s face while being attached to headgear straps.



According to oral health experts, toothbrushes serve as the most lucrative sites for germs, especially when these dental health essentials aren’t covered. In fact, uncovered toothbrushes allow diarrhea-causing bacteria like E. coli and other bacteria like staphylococci to thrive and attack an individual’s health.

An important thing to understand is the fact that a person’s mouth is naturally full of microorganisms regardless of the use of uncovered toothbrush. And, what actually leads to health problems is bacterial imbalance in the mouth. It should also be kept in mind that plaque is a thin layer of bacteria and each time the teeth are brushed, bacteria is being put on the toothbrush.

Most oral health experts believe that these bacteria on the toothbrush shouldn’t be blamed for common illnesses.  Irrespective of the number of bacteria present in the mouth, the body’s in-built defense systems make it very unlikely that an individual will suffer from an infectious disease just by brushing the teeth. However, it is important to realize that taking care of toothbrushes is extremely important to rule out any chances of harmful or disease-causing bacterial growth in the mouth.  This also means that there should be no compromise on basic hygiene when using or storing the toothbrush.

In many cases, individuals make the terrible mistake of brushing the teeth where all the flushing is done. Typically, most bathrooms aren’t very spacious and in most cases, the toilet and bathroom sink are very close to each other. Since a toilet flush spreads bacteria in the atmosphere, having uncovered toothbrushes placed near the toilet only allows bacteria to make their way into the exposed toothbrushes. Therefore, it is extremely important to ensure that toothbrushes aren’t stored anywhere close to the toilet. Moreover, it is very important that hands are thoroughly washed before using the toothbrush for cleaning.


How to Store the Toothbrush? 

In addition to moving the toothbrush away from the toilet, there are certain important steps that can be taken to make sure that the toothbrush is stored properly so that the chances of catching infections or experiencing any oral or general health issues are reduced.

Tip # 1: Rinsing the toothbrush is extremely important. Start with washing off the toothbrush with water each time it is used.


Tip # 2: Keeping the toothbrush dry is also very important.  Since bacterial growth is more rapid in a wet environment, the toothbrush should always be dried between brushings. Covers that may offer a moist environment for the bacteria to thrive shouldn’t be used.


Tip # 3: All toothbrushes should be kept upright instead of lying them down.


Tip # 4: Lastly, sharing is not caring in this case. Regardless of how close a person is to his/her family or friends, toothbrushes shouldn’t be shared at any cost.  In fact, a toothbrush shouldn’t be kept in the same container with other toothbrushes as they may swap bacteria.



If an individual has a “gummy” smile or abnormally small teeth, he/she may consider opting for crown lengthening. This procedure is also known as a gum lift and involves cosmetic dentistry techniques for beautifying the smile by enhancing the exposure of teeth.


About The Procedure

This is an oral surgical procedure that is highly effective in the removal of unnecessary amount of gum tissue and bones surrounding the upper teeth for making the teeth appear longer. This procedure is usually performed by and under the supervision of dentists as well as gum specialists.

In case of uneven gum line, this procedure can help in sculpting the gum line for creating a symmetrical smile. Other than cosmetic reasons, crown lengthening may be used to achieve other dental purposes. For instance, the procedure can be performed to increase the exposure of the tooth’s crown for supporting a dental filling.

The entire process of crown lengthening is based on an oral surgery that is carried out under the effect of local anesthesia. Once the targeted region is numbed, small cuts are made for pulling away the patient’s gums from his/her teeth so that excess gum can be removed. At times, only removal of gum tissue is required for exposing a greater part of the crown. However, in the presence of excessive soft tissue and bone that covers the crown, a very small part of bone may be removed as well. Once the surgery is completely performed, sterile salt water is used for washing the gums that are eventually stitched up.


Why Crown Lengthening Is Beneficial

The most significant benefit of crown lengthening is that this procedure only needs to be done once and there’s no need for follow-up treatment. Apart from developing a wider, more symmetrical smile, this procedure is also effective in offering solutions to other dental care problems. For instance, crown lengthening can significantly reduce the chances of developing tooth decay as a greater part of the tooth is exposed to flossing and brushing. In fact, the surgical procedure can typically be finished in a matter of 30-60 minutes.

Recovering From The Procedure

After the completion of this surgical procedure, the patient is prescribed a pain reliever and asked to apply ice for reducing swelling. Additionally, the patient will be required to consume a diet based on soft foods. Gentle tooth brushing is strongly recommended, particularly in regions of the teeth surrounding the stitches. The whole process could take around three months or more. During this time, the patient may consider having veneers or some other form of cosmetic dentistry treatment like whitening or bonding.


Understanding Oral Sedation

Oral drugs typically work on an individual’s central nervous system for promoting relaxation. These sedatives aren’t usually prescribed as it may take up to 30 minutes for the drugs to be effective. Moreover, the use of these sedatives may lead to long-term drowsiness.


What Is General Anesthesia?

General anesthesia is typically used for putting the patient to sleep during the normal process. Patients in need of general anesthesia can get their treatment in the dental office. However, in most cases, such patients get their treatment in a hospital. The main reason behind this is the fact that this anesthesia poses certain health risks, including drops in blood pressure along with irregular heartbeats. Therefore, the patient requires close monitoring. For reasons like these, general anesthesia is normally used when serious or complicated dental work is required, particularly when other types of sedation or pain management options fail to overcome fear. Before opting for general sedation, it is important to ask the dental professional or the dentist if he/she is legally licensed to administer the sedation.

Discussing the possible options with the dentist is extremely important.  The dentist should also be informed about any health problems that the patient may already have, if he/she is taking any medications, or if he/she has a history of health problems such as allergic reactions to certain medications. With the help of this information, the dentist can determine the most ideal anxiety- and pain-management option for the patient.

It is important to understand that the dentist may only be licensed to administer certain but not essentially all pain- and anxiety-management techniques. According to some experts, sedation use might not be appropriate for routine dental processes. In fact, many experts also state that the advantages of proper oral care for individuals with high dental anxiety outweigh any sedation risks.


Body Strategies For Anxiety/Pain Management

Distraction Tricks

An ideal strategy for reducing stress and managing anxiety is distracting the patient with something pleasant. Some patients bring their iPod or other entertainment devices to distract themselves. In fact, certain dental offices have such distracters in their offices to help the patient keep his/her attention from the dental work.

Relaxation Tips

According to research, relaxation techniques are highly effective in reducing pain as well as anxiety levels. There are various types of relaxation techniques with the most common being “guided imagery” and “deep breathing”.

Understanding Guided Imagery

This strategy involves recalling or visualizing a pleasant or comfortable experience. By focusing on being as detailed as possible, the mind gets so indulged in the task that the patient forgets about his/her dental work.

The Deep Breathing Way

This strategy is effective in promoting deep and slow breathing that enhances the flow of oxygen in the body, thereby relieving stress and anxiety.



One of the most common concerns associated with dental visits is the “fear of pain”. However, many patients will be relieved to discover that there are several types of medicines and pain-management techniques that aren’t only effective in coping with the anxiety of having a dental procedure done but they are also useful in reducing, if not eliminating, the intensity of pain associated with different dental procedures.


Different Options For Pain Relief

What Are Topical Anaesthetics?

Application of topical anaesthetics involves the use of swabs. Basically, anaesthetics serve the purpose of numbing the region in the gums or mouth where the dental procedure will be carried out. Typically, these anaesthetics are used before using local anaesthetics.

Understanding the Use of Laser Drills

At times, the dentist may use laser drills for eliminating tooth decay. In fact, many dental experts have started using lasers for making the targeted enamel ready for filling placement. Lasers can even reduce the intensity of pain, thereby eliminating the need of anesthesia use during the procedure.

What is Electronically Transferred Anesthesia?

This is a popular alternative to local anaesthetics. The patient’s face is covered by adhesive pads while a battery-powered device is used for sending electrical impulses to the targeted area for numbing it. The patient is responsible for controlling stimulation level with the help of a hand-held unit. Cranial electrotherapy stimulation is yet another type of ETA, which involves the passage of electricity into the brain, thereby leading to relaxation. Even this time, the patient is responsible for controlling current intensity so that the pain can be effectively controlled. The basic benefit of this strategy is that when the device is turned off, the effect can be quickly reversed. As a result, the patient becomes capable of performing day-to-day activities right after the procedure.


Nitrous Oxide: Another Pain-Management Strategy

Nitrous oxide or laughing gas when inhaled helps in relaxing the patient. This is the most common type of sedation that a dentist uses.  The effects of this gas wear off as soon as it is turned off. In fact, this is the sole form of sedation that allows patients to drive following the procedure while performing regular activities like eating food within 12 hours.

What Is Intravenous Sedation?

This type of anxiety and pain management technique plays an important role in the application of a sedative into the patient’s vein of the hand or arm. This strategy is typically reserved for individuals who are planning to undergo serious dental procedures or for individuals who suffer from severe anxiety. Dental experts are responsible for monitoring the patient’s oxygen level that is getting IV sedation and may require additional oxygen while performing the procedure. IV sedation can significantly contribute in keeping the patient awake and relaxed at the same time.


The use of lasers in dentistry is no longer considered a new idea. In fact, this technology has been used for many years to deal with different dental issues. According to most experts, laser technology has played an important role in taking dental treatment to the next level.

Today, many dentists are making the most of this technology by using it to treat dental problems like tooth decay.  Lasers are used for removing decay and preparing the neighboring enamel for dental fillings. Moreover, lasers are highly effective in hardening dental fillings. In the treatment of gum disease, lasers help in reshaping gums while eliminating bacteria during root canal treatment. Similarly, lasers play an efficient role in lesion removal when they are used for removing small tissue pieces that are evaluated for cancer. By eliminating oral lesions, laser technology helps in relieving pain associated with canker sores.

Another popular dental procedure that involves laser use is teeth whitening, in which, this technology is used for speeding up the process. Peroxide bleaching solutions that the tooth surfaces get exposed to are ”activated” by laser energy, thereby speeding up the entire whitening process.


The Work of Lasers in Dentistry

Basically, lasers function by using the energy of light. When lasers are used during dental and surgical processes, they serve the role of cutting instruments or tissue vaporizers. On the contrary, when these lasers are used for hardening dental fillings, they help in strengthening the bond between the teeth and the dental fillings. The application of lasers in teeth-whitening processes allows lasers to serve as heat sources while enhancing the influence of teeth-bleaching agents.


How Does Laser Use Benefit Dental Treatment?

When comparing against conventional dental drills, lasers appear to have several benefits. This technology not only causes less pain but it also decreases the chances of using anesthesia while performing dental procedures. In fact, in some cases, laser technology turns out to be highly effective in reducing if not completely eliminating anxiety in individuals who aren’t comfortable with the idea of using dental drills. Lasers are also very useful in reducing bleeding as well as inflammation while performing soft tissue treatment. Lasers can also help in preserving a greater number of healthy teeth while removing cavity from the teeth.

Despite the many advantages of using laser technology in dentistry, critics highlight certain limitations that are associated with this technology.  For instance, it is not possible to use lasers with dental fillings that are already present. In fact, the use of lasers is limited to specific dental procedures as many dental treatment options can’t incorporate this technology. For example, lasers aren’t effective in filling dental cavities present between the teeth, surrounding dental fillings, and enormous cavities that require crown placement. Furthermore, this technology can’t be used for removing crowns or silver fillings that have become defective or it can’t help in preparing teeth for dental bridges.



Dental crowns or dental caps serve the purpose of covering a tooth surface so that its normal shape can be restored. In many cases, dental crowns are used for covering teeth that have lost their shape or color. From protecting weak teeth to restoring broken teeth, dental crowns are used to fix a variety of dental issues. In addition to covering teeth with large fillings and keeping dental bridges intact, dental crowns are highly effective in covering dental implants.  Dental caps are also used for teeth that have had root canal treatment.

From metal and porcelain to ceramic and resin, dental caps can be made from different materials. Since crowns are highly expensive, they are suggested by the dentists only when other procedures aren’t sufficient to produce desirable results.

At times, same-day crowns are made for temporary use, only to be replaced by permanent dental crowns. The teeth are prepared for the crown first, after which, tooth molds are used to get a temporary crown so that a permanent crown can be placed eventually. Permanent dental crowns tend to last longer if maintained properly.


Enamel Shaping and Contouring

This procedure typically involves the removal of enamel for improving tooth appearance. The process may be performed together with dental bonding. Typically, this procedure helps in changing the teeth’s shape or position so that proper size, shape or appearance can be achieved. Patients with crooked or chipped teeth and individuals with bite issues may opt for enamel shaping and contouring procedures.


Dental Braces

Dental braces are the most popular dental treatment that can be performed for people in all ages. In addition to improving the teeth’s look, braces help in eliminating dental problems like bite issues and jaw problems. The main idea behind the use of braces is application of light pressure to the teeth so that they can be repositioned slowly, typically in a period of one or three years.

For braces placement, the orthodontist or dentist bonds brackets that are made of plastic, metal or ceramic to the teeth. Then arch wires are placed through the brackets for bringing the teeth into their proper position. Lingual braces can be attached to the teeth’s back for making the braces appear invisible.

Once the braces get attached and the dentist has tightened them, some discomfort may be experienced by the patient.  Furthermore, proper oral hygiene becomes highly essential when using braces. While braces pose no risks to health, some individuals may have allergies to latex or metal. In some cases, root shortening has minor effects on the treatment.

In case of minor spacing issues, aligners can be used. The dentist is responsible for reshaping and replacing these aligners in every two weeks for enhancing tooth appearance.  An advantage to using aligners is that the patient can remove them when performing daily activities like flossing, tooth brushing and eating.



Cosmetic dentistry is one of the most popular fields in dentistry that has gone through tremendous advancements in recent years. Whether it is teeth whitening and tooth shaping or tooth replacement, cosmetic dental solutions have helped millions of individuals boast beautiful smiles with confidence.  Here’s an insight into some of the most common cosmetic dental solutions:


Understanding Teeth Whitening

It isn’t uncommon for teeth to turn yellow or get stained overtime,   particularly if an individual smokes, takes certain drugs, or consumes foods and drinks like tea and coffee. With the help of chemical procedures, the teeth can be bleached in a dental office. In-office methods can be used for whitening the teeth or whitening-systems can be provided to be used at home.

Usually, custom mouthpieces are designed in dental labs that are provided to the patient so that the whitening solution is applied in the right amount. Although at-home teeth whitening method may appear as convenient option, it takes around two to four weeks to produce effective results. On the contrary, in-office dental whitening only needs a visit or two to produce effective results in 45- to 60-minutes.

It should be noted that even the results of the most effective teeth whitening solutions start wearing off if the teeth are constantly exposed to substances or conditions that had initially caused the staining. As whitening products don’t offer a guaranteed way to clean the teeth, following regular oral hygiene practices is still very important.


What About Dental Bonding?

Dental bonding is a popular cosmetic dental solution that helps in improving the look of the teeth if there is abnormally wide space between them, or if the teeth are broken, stained or chipped.

Bonding materials are also used for filling small cavities or for protecting exposed tooth roots. This can be achieved by the application of an etching solution, after which, tooth-colored materials like composite resins are applied to the targeted surfaces directly.


What Are Dental Veneers?

Dental veneers are custom shells that can be made from plastic or porcelain. These shells serve the purpose of covering the teeth’s front sides so that their color or shape can be changed.

This is an effective option for patients that have abnormal spaces between their teeth, people with chipped or crooked teeth. Moreover, veneers are also used for fixing teeth that have permanently stained or are poorly shaped. Dental experts typically recommend veneers for the same issues that bonding deals with. However, it should be noted that veneer placement is an irreversible procedure.

Dental veneers are not as expensive as crowns. Furthermore, these dental devices have a long life and good color stability.

Before these shells are inserted, tooth impressions are taken, after which, tooth buffing is done before the veneer is cemented in place. Since veneers are prepared in a dental laboratory, a second visit is needed to insert the veneers.

What is a Tooth Fracture?

Tooth Fracture

Tooth fractures can be extremely minor (affecting the enamel and/or dentin) or very severe (affecting the root), depending on the severity of a dental accidental. Basically, teeth have two protective layers, called the dentin and the enamel. The white hard outer layer is known as the enamel while the yellow layering lying beneath this white layer is the dentin. Together, these two layers offer protection to the dental pulp. Almost one-third portion of the tooth that is visible is known as the crown, whereas the remaining portion i.e. the root is hidden inside the bone. In most cases, dental X-rays are needed for diagnosing, locating as well as measuring the severity of a tooth fracture.


What is a serious tooth fracture?

If a tooth fracture is extremely severe, it will expose the dentin as well as the pulp tissue. The fracture needs immediate treatment as the tooth may have displaced or become loose. If the tooth is at risk of falling out totally, the dental professional may consider splinting the loose tooth while causing it to bond to the neighboring teeth for stabilizing the tooth as the underlying gums and bones start to heal. Since there are greater chances for the tooth pulp to die, the dentist may perform a root canal treatment during the affected individual’s first visit. Or in other cases, the dentist may consider it best to use a sedative for calming the dental pain and the patient may be asked to re-visit the dentist in 2-4 weeks for further evaluation and treatment.  During these visits, the dentist may perform root canal treatment, which is typically followed by application of dental fillings or crown placement. The dentist may also remove the splint during these visits.

What about a fracture of the enamel and dentin?

Certain tooth fractures affect both the enamel as well as the dentin of teeth. However, the affected individual neither experiences the problem of displaced teeth nor gum bleeding. As these fractures are quite deep, the teeth will most likely develop sensitivity to food and/or cold temperature. If the dentin is exposed to oral bacteria for a long time, the inner pulp tissue may eventually die. This can result in further tooth infections and dental abscess. This is why; fractures that involve damage to the dentin need immediate treatment. In most cases, a sedative dressing is applied on the exposed dentin, which is followed by the application of dental fillings and crown placement for protecting tooth pulp. Follow up dental X-rays in a couple of months may be required to ensure that the pulp is still alive.

If the fracture has caused significant damage to the pulp, the dentist may either extract the dying tooth or perform a root canal treatment for preventing severe tooth infections. It should be noted that the root canal treatment can preserve the dying tooth while eliminating the need of tooth extraction.


Dental Cavities: What You Should Know!

What You Should Know!

Dental cavities are typically a consequence of tooth decay, which is one of the most common dental conditions that can significantly destroy the structure of teeth. Tooth decay has negative effects on both the enamel as well as the dentin.

The main reason behind this condition is the decay of carb-containing food particles that are accumulated in between the teeth. When oral bacteria start digesting these food bits, the carbohydrates are converted into acids. The bacterial growth, acid formation, accumulation of food debris and saliva lead to the formation of plaque. Overtime, acid production and plaque formation contribute towards dissolving the teeth’s enamel surface, which leads to the development of tooth holes, more commonly referred to as “cavities” or “dental caries”.


Who Is At Risk of Developing Cavities?

It is a widespread misconception that only children are affected by cavities. However, in real, changes related to the process of aging are also linked with dental caries. In fact, gum recession that typically results from gingivitis tends to expose the roots of teeth to plaque whereas in other cases, munching on sugary delights can also make the teeth more vulnerable to this tooth-damaging condition.

In some cases, dental filling edges also start experiencing decay. This is more common in older patients who haven’t used many fluoride-based products during their youth, which caused them to have more dental fillings, thereby leading to increased incidences of dental caries.

Signs of Dental Caries

The ideal strategy for determining whether an individual has cavities is having a regular dental examination. As the dentist examines the teeth, he/she will observe that the tooth surface is unusually soft and in many cases, dental X-rays make it easy to detect hidden dental cavities.

If the decay has become deeper and more serious, the patient may experience toothaches, particularly after munching on sugary foods.  Another very common indicator is the appearance of holes or pits in the patient’s teeth.

Treating Dental Caries

The dentist can suggest different strategies or treatment options to deal with dental caries, depending on the nature of damage and the type of tooth decay. In case of non-extensive decay, the decayed part of the tooth structure is eliminated by drilling, followed by a filling replacement. The filling material can vary from silver and gold to composite resin or porcelain. Generally, most dental filling materials are deemed safe. However, the use of mercury-based, silver amalgams is still controversial. It is important to note that allergic reactions to silver amalgam are rare as compared to other restorative options.

If this decay is extensive and a small amount of tooth structure is left, dental crowns are used. However, if the tooth nerve has died as a result of decay, the patient is asked to opt for root canal treatment. During this treatment, tooth’s centre is removed in addition to removing the decayed parts. Following the removal procedure, a sealing material is used for filling the roots. If needed, a crown is also positioned over the filled tooth.



What about a chipped tooth?

Minor tooth fractures typically involve enamel chipping. The teeth aren’t displaced, and there isn’t any form of gum bleeding. The only sign of this kind of minor chipping is rough or sharp tooth edges that irritate the tongue and cheek. The injured teeth don’t experience any pain or sensitivity. There are fewer chances of developing pulp injury, which is why, urgent treatment is not needed. A specific amount of sugarless gum or orthodontic wax can be used to prevent further damage. In most cases, the dentist places dental fillings, and crowns or caps for protecting the pulp of the tooth and restoring tooth contour.


What is a displaced tooth?

In some cases, an accident causes the tooth to be displaced instead of being lost or knocked out. Displaced teeth can be pulled out and have an elongated look, or they may have a shorter look if pushed in. Displaced teeth may get pushed in different directions after an accident. Although tooth displacement isn’t an emergency, it is best to consult the dentist as soon as possible so that he/she can perform splinting or realignment of the tooth with the help of wires along with orthodontic brackets. The sooner the dentist is approached, the less challenging it becomes to properly align the displaced tooth. It is important to note that dental trauma that is severe enough to displace the teeth can also result in pulp injury. And this is why, periodic evaluation of displaced teeth is important for determining if a root canal treatment is required.

What is a tooth fracture?

Tooth fractures can be extremely minor (affecting the enamel and/or dentin) or very severe (affecting the root), depending on the severity of a dental accidental. Basically, teeth have two protective layers, called the dentin and enamel. The white hard outer layer is known as the enamel while the yellow layering lying beneath this white layer is the dentin. Together, these two layers offer protection to the dental pulp. Almost one-third portion of the tooth that is visible is known as the crown, whereas the remaining portion i.e. the root is hidden inside the bone. In most cases, dental X-rays are needed for diagnosing, locating as well as measuring the severity of a tooth fracture.

What about a serious tooth fracture?

If a tooth fracture is extremely severe, it will expose the dentin as well as the pulp tissue. The fracture needs immediate treatment as the tooth may have displaced or become loose. If the tooth is at risk of falling out totally, the dental professional may consider splinting the loose tooth while causing it to bond to the neighboring teeth for stabilizing the tooth as the underlying gums and bones start to heal. Since there are greater chances for the tooth pulp to die, the dentist may perform a root canal treatment during the affected individual’s first visit. Or in other cases, the dentist may consider it best to use a sedative for calming the dental pain and the patient may be asked to re-visit the dentist in 2-4 weeks for further evaluation and treatment.